Prof. Sven Beer

Emeritus in Molecular Biology Ecology of Plants
ביולוגיה מול.ואקול.צמחים אמריטוס
Prof. Sven Beer
Israel Phone: +972 (0)546411449
Office: Britannia-Porter, 610


Born in Sweden, Prof. Beer arrived in Israel in 1973, where he received his M.Sc. and Ph.D. from Tel Aviv University. As well as Hebrew, he is fluent in English, Swedish and German. Since retirement, he now divides his time between Israel and Australia.



1969-1972 B.A.; Biology, Universities of Uppsala and Stockholm
1974-1975 M.Sc.; Botany, Tel Aviv University
1975-1979 Ph.D.; Botany, Tel Aviv University
1979-1980 Post-doctoral research; Limnology, Tel Aviv University


Academic Appointments:

1974 - 1979 Instructor; Botany, Tel Aviv University
1981 - 1986 Lecturer; Tel Aviv University
1985 - 1987  Visiting Scientist; Photosynthesis, University of Florida
1986 - 1991  Senior Lecturer; Tel Aviv University
1988 - 1989 Scientific Advisor; Oceanography, The Open University
1991 - 2000 Associate Professor; Tel Aviv University
1994 - 1995 Visiting Scientist; Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut
2000 - 2011  Full Professor; Tel Aviv University
2000 - 2003 Chairman of the Depatment; Tel Aviv University
2001 - present Lecturer; Marine Botany, Ruppin Academic Center
2003 - 2004 Visiting Scientist; Marine Botany, University of Stockholm
2003 - present Adjunct Professor; Botany, University of Stockholm
2007 - 2008 Visiting Scientist; Marine Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam
2009 Visiting Scientist; Marine Sciences, University of New Hampshire
2011 - present Emeritus Professor; Tel Aviv University


Professional Affiliations:

  Botanical Society of Israel (1981),  Phycological Society of America (1983), American Society of Plant Physiologists (1983-1990), European Phycological Society (1995), World Seagrass Association (2002)  


Honors and Awards:

1981 TAU grant for starting scientists (no. 5203) 
1981 European Atomic Commission, travel grant
1981-1982 TAU grant for young scientists (no. 5229)
1982 Invited Panellist, AAPS Workshop, Athens, GA 
1986 DNR of Florida, Proposal co-author and Project Leader 
1986 Florida Institute of Oceanography, eight shipboard days for scientific cruise to the Bahamas, Proposal author and expedition participant 
1987, 1989 Florida Institute of Oceanography, six shipboard days - same as 1986
1989, 1990 The Danish Science Foundation / Ministry of Education (Photosynthesis), PI
1989 The Hunger Fund/TAU (with Y. Lipkin) (Edible Sea Vegetable Porphyra), PI 
1989, 1990 The Ecology Fund, Israel (Algal Ecology), PI 
1991, 1992 Swedish National Research Council (Marine Algal Ecology), PI 
1991 Florida-Israel Institute (with G. Bowes) (Aquatic Macrophytes), PI 
1991-1993 Israel Academy of Sciences (with A. Zilberstein) (Rubisco SSU physiology and molecular biology , PI 
1991, 1992 TAU Fund for Basic Research (algal responses to CO2 ), PI 
1993-1996 Israel Academy of Sciences (with M. Gurewits) (HCO3 transport in algae), PI
1994-1995 DNR of Connecticut (seagrass biology of Long Island Sound), scientist 
1997-2000 R. Weil Research Grant, Proventus, Sweden (marine algae), PI 
1998-2001 The Israel Science Foundation / Israel Academy of Sciences (with A. Israel) (algal responses to increasing CO2 levels), PI 
1998-2001 World Wildlife Fund (WWF) (study grant for African Ph.D. student) 
2001-2004 U.S.-Israel BiNational Science Foundation (BSF) (photosymbiotic relationships in 
marine sponges), PI 
2004 European Community (artificial marine structures), co-PI
2008 Ministry of Nature Protection (molecular identification of phytoplankton), PI
2010 European Community (seagrass biology), Core-group member, Israeli representative


Research Interests

Marine Photosynthesis and Ecophysiology:  Photosynthetic carbon acquisition in marine plants (macroalgae and seagrasses)

  • Photophysiology of marine invertebrate (corals, sponges) photosymbionts
  • Novel in situ optical fluorometric methods for measuring photosynthetic rates under water
  • Active in the environmental organization EcoOcean (


Principal Research Interests:

  • Marine Macrophyte (Macroalgae, Seagrasses)
  • Photosynthetic Carbon Acquisition;
  • Marine Invertebrate Photosymbioses;
  • PAM Fluorometric Methods for in situ Measurements of Photosynthetic Production 




Beer, S., Björk, M. and Beardall, J. 2014. Photosynthesis in the Marine Environment. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (ISBN: 978-1-119-97957-9). Updated for eBook 2023.


ARTICLES (peer reviewed)

1. Beer, S., Shomer-Ilan, A. and Waisel, Y. 1975. Salt stimulated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in Cakile maritima. Physiol. Plant. 3: 293-295

2. Shomer-Ilan, A., Beer, S. and Waisel, Y. 1975. Suaeda monoica, a C4 plant without typical bundle sheaths. Plant Physiol. 56 :676-679

3. Shomer-Ilan, A., Beer, S. and Waisel, Y. 1976. Suaeda monoica, a C4 plant without typical Kranz anatomy. Isr. J. Bot. 25: 94-97

4. Beer, S., Eshel, A. and Waisel, Y. 1977. Carbon metabolism in seagrasses. I. The utilization of exogenous inorganic carbon species in photosynthesis. J. Exp. Bot. 106: 1180-1189

5. Beer, S. and Waisel, Y. 1979. Some photosynthetic carbon fixation properties in seagrasses. Aquat. Bot. 7: 129-138

6. Beer, S., Shomer-Ilan, A. and Waisel, Y. 1980. Carbon metabolism in seagrasses. II. Patterns of photosynthetic CO2 incorporation. J. Exp. Bot. 31: 1019-1026

7. Beer, S., Eshel, A. and Waisel, Y. 1980. Carbon metabolism in seagrasses. III. Activities of carbon fixing enzymes in relation to internal salt concentrations. J. Exp. Bot. 31: 1027-1033

8. Agami, M., Beer, S. and Waisel, Y. 1980. Growth and photosynthesis of Najas marina L. as affected by light intensity. Aquat. Bot. 9: 285-289

9. Beer, S. and Wetzel, R.G. 1981. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in the submerged aquatic angiosperm Scirpus subterminalis. Plant Sci. Lett. 21: 199-207

10. Beer, S., Stewart, A.J. and Wetzel, R.G. 1982. Measuring chlorophyll and 14C-labeled photosynthate in aquatic angiosperms by the use of a tissue solubilizer. Plant Physiol. 69: 54-57

11. Beer, S. and Wetzel, R.G. 1982. Photosynthetic carbon fixation pathways in Zostera marina and three Florida seagrasses. Aquat. Bot. 13: 141- 146

12. Beer, S. and Waisel, Y. 1982. Effects of light and pressure on photosynthesis in two seagrasses. Aquat. Bot. 13: 331-337

13. Beer, S. and Wetzel, R.G. 1982. Photosynthesis in submersed macrophytes of a temperate lake. Plant Physiol. 70: 488-492

14. Beer, S. and Eshel, A. 1983. Photosynthesis of Ulva sp. I. Effects of desiccation when exposed to air. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 70: 91- 97

15. Beer, S. and Eshel, A. 1983. Photosynthesis of Ulva sp. II. Utilization of CO2 and HCO3when submerged. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 70: 99- 106 

16. Beer, S. and Levy, I. 1983. Effects of photon fluence rate and light spectrum composition on growth, photosynthesis and pigment relations in Gracilaria sp. J. Phycol. 19: 516-522

17. Agami, M., Beer, S. and Waisel, Y. 1984. Seasonal variations in the growth capacity of Najas marina L. as a function of water depth in the Yarkon Springs, Israel. Aquat. Bot. 19: 45-51

18. Beer, S. 1985. Effects of COand O2 on photosynthetic O2 release of Spirodela polyrrhiza turions. Plant Physiol. 79: 199-201

19. Beer, S. and Eshel, A. 1985. Determining phycoerythrin and phycocyanin in aqueous crude extracts of red algae. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 36: 785-792

20. Eshel, A. and Beer, S. 1986. Inorganic carbon assimilation of Spirodela polyrrhiza. Hydrobiologia 132: 149-153

21. Beer, S. and Israel, A. 1986. Photosynthesis of Ulva sp. III. O2 effects, carboxylase activities and the COincorporation pattern. Plant Physiol. 81: 937-938

22. Beer, S., Spencer, W. and Bowes, G. 1986. Photosynthesis and growth of the blue-green alga Lyngbya birgei in relation to its environment. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 24: 61-65

23. Agami, M., Beer, S. and Waisel, Y. 1986. The morphology and physiology of turions in Najas marina L. in Israel. Aquat. Bot. 26: 371-376

24. Lipkin, Y., Beer, S., Best, E.P.H., Kairesalo, T. and Salonen, K. 1986. Primary production of macrophytes: terminology, approaches and a comparison of methods. Aquat. Bot. 26: 129-142

25. Beer, S. and Shragge, B. 1987. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in Enteromorpha compressa. J. Phycol. 23: 580-584

26. Holbrook, G.P., Beer, S., Spencer, W.E., Reiskind, J., Davis, J.S. and Bowes, G. 1988. Photosynthesis in marine macroalgae: Evidence for Carbon Limitation. Can. J. Bot. 66: 577-582

27. Beer, S. 1989. Photosynthesis and photorespiration in marine angiosperms (Review Article). Aquat. Bot. 34: 153-166

28. Reiskind, J., Beer, S. and Bowes, G. 1989. Photosynthesis and photorespiration in marine macroalgae. (Review Article). Aquat. Bot. 34: 131-152

29. Beer, S. and Israel, A. 1990. Photosynthesis of Ulva fasciata. IV. pH, carbonic anhydrase and inorganic carbon conversions in the unstirred layer. Plant Cell and Environ. 13: 555-560

30. Eilenberg, H., Beer, S., Gepstein, S., Geva, N. and Zilberstein, A. 1990. Red or blue light induced different Rubisco small subunits in fern gametophytes affecting carboxylation rates. In: M. Baltscheffsky, ed., Current Research in Photosynthesis, Vol. 3, Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht, pp. 11.411-414

31. Beer, S., Spencer, W., Holbrook, G.P. and Bowes, G. 1990. Gas exchange and carbon fixation properties of the mat-forming cyanophyte Lyngbya birgei. Aquat. Bot. 38: 221-230

32. Levy, I., Beer, S. and Friedlander, M. 1990. Growth, photosynthesis and agar in wild type strains of Gracilaria verrucosa and Gracilaria conferta (Rhodophyta), as a strain selection experiment. Hydro­biologia 204/205: 381-387

33. Beer, S., Israel, A., Drechsler, Z. and Cohen, Y. 1990. Photosynthesis in Ulva fasciata. V. Evidence for an inorganic carbon concentrating system, and Rubisco CO2 kinetics. Plant Physiol. 94: 1542-1546

34. Levy, I., Beer, S. and Friedlander, M. 1990. Strain selection in Gracilaria spp. 2. Selection for high and low temperature resistance in G. verrucosa sporelings. J. Appl. Phycol. 2: 163-171

35. Beer, S., Madsen, T. and Sand-Jensen, K. 1990. Rubisco in aquatic plants. Proc. European Weed Research Society, Uppsala, Sweden, pp. 33-34

36. Bowes, G., Spencer, W.E. and Beer, S. 1990. Ecophysiological considerations on the weed potential of Lyngbya. Proc. European Weed Society, Uppsala, Sweden, pp. 49-54

37. Eilenberg, H., Beer, S., Gepstein, S., Geva, N., Tadmor, O. and Zilberstein, A. 1991. Variability in Rubisco small subunits and carboxylation activity in fern gametophytes grown under different light spectra. Plant Physiol. 95: 298-304

38. Beer, S., Sand-Jensen, K., Vindbaek Madsen, T. and Nielsen, S.L. 1991. The carboxylase activity of Rubisco and the photosynthetic performance in aquatic plants. Oecologia 87: 429-434

39. Israel, A., Bowes, G. and Beer, S. 1991. Photosynthetic carbon acquisition in Gracilaria conferta. I. Gas exchange properties and the [CO2] fixation pathway. Mar. Biol. 110: 195-198

40. Drechsler, Z. and Beer, S. 1991. The utilization of inorganic carbon by Ulva lactuca. Plant Physiol. 97: 1439-1444

41. Israel, A. and Beer, S. 1992. Photosynthetic carbon acquisition in Gracilaria conferta. II. HCO3 uptake, carbonic anhydrase and Rubisco carboxylase kinetics. Mar. Biol. 112: 697-700

42. Beer, S., Spencer, W. and Bowes, G. 1992. HCO3‑  use and evidence for a carbon concentrating process in the mat-forming cyanophyte Lyngbya birgei. Aquat. Bot. 42: 159-171

43. Beer, S. and Kautsky, L. 1992. The recovery of net photosynthesis during rehydration of three Fucus species from the Swedish West Coast following exposure to air. Bot. Mar. 35: 487-491

44. Einav, R. and Beer, S. 1993. Photosynthesis in air and in water of Acanthophora najadiformis growing within a narrow zone of the intertidal. Mar. Biol. 117: 133-139

45. Drechsler, Z., Sharkia, R., Cabantchik, Z.I. and Beer, S. 1993. Bicarbonate uptake in the marine macroalga Ulva sp. is inhibited by classical probes of anion exchange by red blood cells. Planta 191: 34-40

46. Madsen, T.V., Sand-Jensen, K. and Beer, S. 1993. Comparison of photosynthetic performance and carboxylation capacity in a range of aquatic macrophytes of different growth forms. Aquat. Bot. 44: 373-384

47. Svirski, E., Beer, S. and Friedlander, M. 1993. Gracilaria conferta and its epiphytes. II. Interrelationships between the red seaweed and Ulva cf. lactuca. Hydrobiologia 260/261: 391-396

48. Lipkin, Y., Beer, S. and Eshel, A. 1993. The ability of Porphyra linearis (Rhodophyta) to tolerate prolonged periods of desiccation. Bot. Mar. 36: 517-523

49. Solomon, A., Beer, S., Waisel, Y., Jones, G.P. and Paleg, L.G. 1994. Ef­fects of NaCl on the carboxylating activity of Rubisco: Amelioration by N-methyl-L-proline. Physiol. Plant. 90: 198-204

50. Sharkia, R., Cabantchik, Z.I. and Beer, S. 1994. A membrane-located polypeptide which may be involved in the HCO3‑  transport of Ulva sp. is recognized by antibodies raised against the red blood cell anion exchange protein. Planta 194: 247-249

51. Drechsler, Z., Sharkia, R., Cabantchik, Z.I. and Beer, S. 1994. The relationship of arginine groups to photosynthetic HCO3‑  uptake in Ulva sp. mediated by a putative anion exchanger. Planta 194: 250- 255

52. Beer, S. and Björk, M. 1994. Photosynthetic properties of protoplasts, as compared with thalli, of Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta). J. Phycol. 30: 633-637

53. Singer, A., Eshel, A., Agami, M. and Beer, S. 1994. The contribution of aerenchymal CO2 to the photosynthesis of emergent and submerged stems of Scirpus lacustris and Cyperus papyrus. Aquat. Bot. 49: 107-116

54. Beer, S. 1994. The function of a putative HCO3‑  transporter in the marine macroalga Ulva. Bielefelder Okologishce Beitrage 8: 51-56

55. Axelsson, L., Ryberg, H. and Beer, S. 1995. Two modes of bicarbonate acquisition in Ulva lactuca. Plant Cell and Environ. 18: 439-445

56. Einav, R., Breckle, S. and Beer, S. 1995. Ecophysiological adaptation strategies of some intertidal macroalgae of the Israeli Mediterranean coast. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 125: 219-228

57. Beer, S. 1995. Photosynthetic utilization of inorganic carbon in Ulva. Sci. Mar. 60: 125-128

58. Jones, G.P., Paleg, L, Waisel, Y, Solomon, A and Beer, S. 1995. Trans-3-hydroxy-N-methyl-l-proline hydrochloride. Acta Chrystallographica C51: 287-289

59. Friedlander, M., Gonen, Y., Kashman, Y. and  Beer, S. 1996. Gracilaria conferta and its epiphytes. 3. Allelopathic inhibition of the red seaweed by Ulva cf. lactuca.  J. Appl. Phycol. 8: 21-25

60. Koch, E. and Beer, S. 1996. Tides, light and the distribution of the seagrass Zostera marina in Long Island Sound. Aquat. Bot. 53: 97-107

61. Beer, S. and Koch, E. 1996. Photosynthesis of seagrasses vs. marine macroalgae in globally changing COenvironments. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 141: 199-204  

62. Larsson, C., Axelsson, L., Ryberg, H. and Beer, S. 1997. Photosynthetic carbon utilization in Enteromorpha intestinalis from a rockpool. Eur. J. Phycol. 32: 49-54

63. Beer, S. and Rehnberg, J. 1997. The acquisition of inorganic carbon by the seagrass Zostera marina. Aquat. Bot. 56: 277-283

64. Björk, M., Weil, A., Semesi, S. and Beer, S. 1997. Photosynthetic utilisation of inorganic carbon by seagrasses from Zanzibar, East Africa. Mar. Biol.129: 363-366

65. Beardall, J., Beer, S. and Raven, J. 1997. Biodiversity of marine plants in an era of climate    change: Some predictions based on physiological performance. Bot. Mar. 41: 113-123

66. Beer, S. 1998. The acquisition of inorganic carbon in marine macrophytes (Commissioned). Isr. J. Plant Sci. 46: 83-87

67. Beer, S., Ilan, M., Eshel, A., Weil, A. and  Brickner, I. 1998. The use of pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry for in situ measurements of photosynthesis in two Red Sea Faviid corals. Mar. Biol. 131: 607-612

68. Beer, S. and Ilan, M. 1998. In situ measurements of photosynthetic irradiance responses in two marine Red Sea sponges growing under dim light condition. Mar. Biol. 131: 613-617

69. Beer, S., Vilenkin, B., Weil, A., Veste, M., Susel, L. and Eshel, A. 1998. Measuring photosynthetic rates in seagrasses by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 174: 293-300

70. Ilan, M. and Beer, S. 1999. A new technique for non-intrusive in situ measurements of symbiotic photosynthesis under water. Coral Reefs 18: 74

71. Björk, M., Uku, J., Weil, A. and Beer, S. 1999. Photosynthetic tolerances to desiccation of tropical intertidal seagrasses. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 191: 121-126

72. Beer, S. and Björk, M. 2000. A comparison of photosynthetic rates measured by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry and O2 evolution in two tropical seagrasses. Aquat. Bot. 66: 69-76

73. Beer, S., Larsson, C., Poryan, O. and Axelsson, L. 2000. Measuring Photosynthetic Rates of the Marine Macroalga Ulva by Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) Fluorometry. Eur. J. Phycol. 35: 69-74

74. Schwarz, A.-M., Björk, M., Buluda, T., Mtolera, M. and Beer, S. 2000. Photosynthetic utilisation of carbon and light by two tropical seagrass species as measured in situ. Mar. Biol. 137: 755-761

75. Garty, J., Weissman, L., Tamir, O., Beer, S., Cohen, Y., Karnieli, A. and Orlovsky, L. 2000. Comparison of five physiological parameters to assess the vitality of the lichen Ramalina lacera exposed to air pollution. Physiol. Plant. 109: 410-418.

76. Steindler, L., Beer, S., Peretzman-Shemer, A., Nyberg, C. and Ilan, M. 2001. Photoadaptation of zooxanthellae in the sponge Cliona vastifica from the Red Sea as measured in situ. Mar. Biol. 138: 511-515

77. Hellblom, F., Beer, S., Björk, M. and Axelsson, L. 2001. A buffer sensitive inorganic carbon utilization system in Zostera marina. Aquat. Bot. 69: 55-62

78. Beer, S. 2001. Marine Photosynthetic Research in Zanzibar: A Mini-Review. S. Afr. J. Bot. 67: 390-392

79. Beer, S., Björk, M., Hellblom, F. and Axelsson, L. 2002. Inorganic Carbon Utilisation in Marine Angiosperms (Seagrasses). Funct. Plant Biol. (former Australian J. Plant Physiol.) 29: 349-354

80. Steindler, L., Beer, S. and Ilan, M. 2002. Photosymbiosis in intertidal and subtidal tropical  sponges. Symbiosis 33: 263-273

81. Winters, G., Loya, Y., Rottgers, R. and Beer, S. 2003. Photoinhibition in shallow water colonies of the coral Stylophora pistillata as measured in situ. Limnol. Oceanogr. 48: 1388-1393

82. Beer, S. and Axelsson, L. 2004. Limitations in the use of PAM fluorometry for measuring photosynthetic rates of macroalgae at high irradiances. Eur. J. Phycol. 39: 1-7

83. Björk, M., Axelsson, L. and Beer, S. 2004. Why is Ulva intestinalis the only macroalga inhabiting isolated rockpools along the Swedish Atlantic coast? Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 284: 109-116

84. Uku, J., Beer, S. and Björk, M. 2005. Buffer sensitivity of photosynthetic carbon utilisation in eight tropical seagrasses. Mar. Biol. 147: 1085-1090

85. Bloch, K., Papismedov, E., Yavriyants, K., Vorobeychik, M., Beer, S. and Vardi, P. 2006. Photosynthetic oxygen generator for bio-artificial pancreas. Tissue Engineering 12: 337-344

86. Beer, S., Mtolera, M., Lyimo, T. and Björk, M. 2006. The photosynthetic performance of the tropical seagrass Halophila ovalis in the upper intertidal. Aquat. Bot. 84: 367-371

87. Bloch, K., Papismedov, E., Yavriyants, K., Vorobeychik, M., Beer, S. and Vardi, P. 2006. Immobilised microalgal cells as an oxygen supply system for encapsulated pancreatic islets: A feasibility study. Artificial Organs 30: 715-718

88. Winters, G. Loya, Y. and Beer, S. 2006. In situ measured seasonal fluctuations in Fv/Fm of two common Red Sea corals. Coral Reefs 25: 593-598

89. Beer, S., Axelsson, L. and Björk, M. 2006. Modes of photosynthetic bicarbonate utilisation in seagrasses, and their possible roles in adaptations to specific habitats. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 13: 3-7

90. Kuguru, B., Winters, G., Beer, S., Santos, S.R. and Chadwick, N.E. 2007. Adaptation strategies of the corallimorpharian Rhodactis rhodostoma to irradiance and temperature. Mar. Biol. 151: 1287-1298

91. Saroussi, S. and Beer, S. 2007. Alpha and quantum yield of aquatic plants as derived from PAM fluorometry: Uses and misuses. Aquat. Bot. 86: 89-92

92. Pawlik, J., Steindler, L., Henkel, T., Beer, S. and Ilan, M. 2007. Chemical warfare on coral reefs: Sponge metabolites differentially affect coral symbiosis in situ. Limnol. Oceanogr. 52: 907-911

93. Saroussi, S. and Beer, S. 2007. Acclimations of macroalgae as reflected in photosynthetic parameters derived from PAM fluorometry. Mar. Ecol. 28: 377-383

94. Steindler, L., Schuster, S., Ilan. M., Avni, A., Cerrano, C. and Beer, S. 2007. Differential gene expression in a marine sponge in relation to its symbiotic status. Mar. Biotechnol. 9: 543-549

95. Sharon, Y. and Beer, S. 2008. Diurnal movements of chloroplasts in Halophila stipulacea and their effect on PAM fluorometric measurements of photosynthetic rates. Aquat. Bot. 88: 273-276

96. Semesi, S., Beer, S. and Björk, M. 2009. Seagrass photosynthesis controls rates of calcification and photosynthesis of calcareous macroalgae in a tropical seagrass meadow. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 382: 41-47

97. Winters, G., Beer, S., Ben Zvi, B., Brickner, I. and Loya, Y. 2009. Spatial and temporal photoacclimation of Stylophora pistillata: Zooxanthella size, pigmentation, location and clade. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 384: 107-119

98. Runcie, J., Paulo, D., Santos, R., Sharon, Y., Beer, S. and Silva, J. 2009. Photosynthetic responses of Halophila stipulacea to a light gradient: 1 – In situ energy partitioning of non-photochemical quenching. Aquat. Biol. 7: 143-152

99. Sharon, Y., Silva, J., Santos, R., Runcie, J., Chernihovsky, M. and Beer, S. 2009. Photosynthetic responses of Halophila stipulacea to a light gradient: II – Plastic acclimations following transplantations. Aquat. Biol. 7: 153-157

100. Silva, J., Sharon, Y., Santos, R. and Beer, S. 2009. Measuring seagrass photosynthesis: Methods and applications. Aquat. Biol. 7: 127-141

101. Winters, G., Holzman, R., Bleikhman, A., Beer, S. and Loya, Y. 2009. Photographic assessment of coral chlorophyll contents: Implications for ecophysiological studies and coral monitoring. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 380: 25-35

102. Kurzbaum, E., Beer, S. and Eckert, W. 2010. Alterations in delayed and direct phytoplankton fluorescence in response to the diurnal light cycle. Hydrobiologia 639: 197-203

103. Sharon, Y., Levitan, O., Spungin, D., Berman-Frank, I. and Beer, S. 2011. Photoacclimations of the seagrass Halophila stipulacea to the dim irradiance at its 48-m depth limit. Limnol. Oceanogr. 56: 357-362

104. Sharon, Y., Dishon, G. and Beer, S. 2011. The effect of UV radiation on chloroplast clumping and photosynthesis in the seagrass Halophila stipulacea grown under high-PAR conditions. J. Mar. Biol. 2011 Article ID 483428 (6 pp)

105. Procaccini, G., Beer, S., Bjork, M., Olsen, J., Mazzuca, S. and Santos, R. 2012. Seagrass ecophysiology meets ecological genomics: Are we ready? Mar. Ecol. 1-6

106. Mazzuca, S., Björk, M., Beer, S. and others. 2013. Establishing research strategies, methodologies and technologies to link genomics and proteomics to seagrass productivity, community metabolism, and ecosystem carbon fluxes. Front. Plant Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fpls.2013.00038.

107. Felisberto, P., Jesus, F.M., Zabel, F., Santos, R., Silva, J., Gobert, S., Beer, S., Bjork, M., Mazzuca, S., Procaccini, G., Runcie, J.W., Champenois, W., Borges, A.V. 2015. Acoustic monitoring of O2 production of  a seagrass meadow. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 464: 75-87.

108. Kaewsrikhaw, R., A. Pratheb, A. Darakrai and S. Beer. 2016. Photosynthesis and calcification in two Halimeda species from Phuket, Thailand. Bot. Mar. 59: 187-192.

109. Winters, G., Edelist, D., Shem-Tov, R. Beer, S. and Rilov. G. 2016. A low cost field-survey method for mapping seagrasses and their potential threats: An example from the northern Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Aquat. Cons. Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. (DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2688).

110. Procaccini, G., M. Ruocco, L. Marin-Guirao, E. Dattolo, C. Brunet, D. D'Esposito, C. Lauritano, S. Mazzuca, I. Serra, L. Bernardo, A. Piro, S. Beer and others. 2017. Depth-specific fluctuations of gene expression and protein abundance modulate the photophysiology in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Scientific Reports [Paper #SREP-16-36441A].

111. Winter, G., Beer, S. and others. 2020. The invasive tropical seagrass Halphila ovalis: A review of what we know, and identifying gaps in our knowledge. Front. Mar. Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fmars.2020.00300.

112. Zhang, D., Beer, S., Li, H. and Gao, K. 2020.  Photosystems I and II in Ulva lactuca are well protected from high incident sunlight. Algal Res. 52: .

113. Zhang, D., Beer, S., Beardall, J. and Gao, K. 2020. Elevated CO2 concentration alleviates UVR-induced inhibition of photosynthetic light reactions and growth in an intertidal red macroalga. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 213: .

114. Zhang, D., Xu, J., Beer, S., Beardall, J., Zhou, C., Gao, K. 2021. Increased CO2 relevant to future ocean acidification alleviates the sensitivity of a red macroalga to solar ultraviolet irradiance by modulating the synergy between photosystems I and II. Frontiers in Plant Science – Marine and Freshwater Plants 12:726538. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2021.726538 .

115. Beer, S. 2022. Photosynthetic traits of the ubiquitous and prolific alga Ulva (Chlorophyta). Eur. J. Phycol. (in press,



116. Shomer-Ilan, A., Beer, S. and Waisel, Y. 1979. Biochemical basis of ecological adaptation. In: Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology (new series), Vol. II. Eds. M. Gibbs and E. Latzko. Sprin­ger-Verlag, Heidelberg, pp. 190-201   

117. Beer, S. 1986. The fixation of inorganic carbon in plant cells. In: H.Z. Enoch and B.A. Kimball (eds) Carbon dioxide enrichment in greenhouse crops. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL., pp. 3-11

118. Bowes, G. and Beer, S. 1987. Physiological processes: photosynthesis. In: Aquatic plants for water treatment and resource recovery, Magnolia Publ. Inc., pp. 311-335

119. Beer, S.1994. Mechanism of inorganic carbon acquisition in marine macroalgae (with special reference to the chlorophyta). In: Progress in Phycological Research. Biopress Ltd., Bristol, England, pp. 179-207

120. Beer, S. 1996. Inorganic carbon transport in seagrasses. In: J. Kuo, D. I. Walker and H. Kirkman (eds.) Seagrass Biology, Vol. 2: Scientific discussions from an international workshop. Faculty of Science, University of Western Australia, pp. 43-47

121. Axelsson, L. and Beer, S. 2001. Carbon Limitations. In: L.C. Rai and J.P. Gaur (eds) Algal adaptation to environmental stresses. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 21-43

122. Beer, S., Björk, M., Gademann, R. and Ralph, P. 2001. Measurements of photosynthetic rates in seagrasses. In: F.T. Short and R. Coles (eds.) Global Seagrass Research Methods. Elsevier Publishing, The Netherlands, pp. 183-198

123. Lipkin, Y., Beer, S. and Zakai, D. 2003. The seagrasses of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Red Sea. In: E.P. Green and F.T. Short (eds) World Atlas of Seagrasses. University of California Press, Los Angeles, pp. 65-73

124. Björk, M., Short, F., Mcleod, E. and Beer, S. 2008. Managing seagrasses for resilience to climate change. Book, The Nature Conservancy – International Union for Conservation of Nature (UICN), Gland, Switzerland, 55 pp.

125. Kangwe, J., Semesi, S., Beer, S., Mtolera, M. and Björk, M. 2012. Carbonate production by calcareous algae in a seagrass-dominated system: The example of Chwaka Bay. In: M. de la Torre-Castro and T.J. Lyimo (eds) People, Nature and Research in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania. ISBN: 978-9987-9559-1-6. Zanzibar Town - WIOMSA, pp 143-156

126. Beer, S., Björk, M, and Beardall, J. 2020. Measurements and Analyses of Photosynthesis and Respiration: Carbon Dioxide vs. Bicarbonate Utilisation (Ch. 5:4). In: K. Gao & J. Beardall (Eds.) Research Methods of Environmental Physiology and Aquatic Sciences. Springer & China Science Press.

127. Beer, S., Björk, M, and Beardall, J. 2020. Chlorophyll Fluorescence: Basic Concepts and Key Parameters of Chlorophyll Fluorescence (Ch. 6:1). In: K. Gao & J. Beardall (Eds.) Research Methods of Environmental Physiology and Aquatic Sciences. Springer & China Science Press.

128. Beer, S., Björk, M, and Beardall, J. 2020. Fluorescence measurement techniques (Ch. 6:2). In: K. Gao & J. Beardall (Eds.) Research Methods of Environmental Physiology and Aquatic Sciences. Springer & China Science Press.


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