Prof. Shai Meiri

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Prof. Shai Meiri
Phone: 03-6409811
Another phone: 03-6409811
Fax: 03-6409403
Office: Sherman - Life Sciences, 329



2000-2004 Ph.D; Zoology, Tel Aviv University
1999-2000 M.Sc.; Zoology, Tel Aviv University
1997-1999 B.Sc.; Biology, Tel Aviv University


Academic Appointments:

2009-present Staff, Tel Aviv University
2005-2009 Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Imperial College in London
2004-2005 Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Tel Aviv University


Research Interests

We are interested in the different ways animal morphology and natural history becomes adapted to their biotic and abiotic environment. Some traits are extremely labile within species even across very restricted spatial scales (such as a group of islands) and temporal scales. Significant morphological changes can sometimes be detected over the course of a century or so, and presumably, they are evolutionary and adaptive.
We study morphological variation within and between species at different spatial and temporal scales, and then compare the patterns of variation shown in whole clades or communities, to search for common evolutionary mechanisms that drive them.

Our interests thus lay at an intersection of Evolutionary Biology, Biogeography, Macroecology and Zoology (mainly Herpetology, Mammalogy and Ornithology)

We use three main approaches to study the phenomena we are interested in, which can be defined as Macroecology, Museology and field-biology 


The advantage of macroecology is that phenomena are studied at very large spatial, temporal and phylogenetic scales, enabling generalizations to be valid. A macroecological approach also allows us not to leave the air-conditioned lab during the Israeli summer. Or macroecological work mainly focuses on the diversity, life history and reproduction, ecology and island biogeography of reptiles. This often neglected group of terrestrial vertebrates is species rich (we anticipate that it will emerge as the largest tetrapod class, overtaking birds, within about a decade) and highly variable. Reptiles are beautiful and fascinating animals as everyone who has seen our two resident leopard geckos can attest. We are trying to erect a global dataset of the geographic ranges, ecological, morphological and natural history traits, as well as the phylogenetic relationships of reptiles that will allow us to seek patterns and test hypotheses regarding their evolution. 

With the help David Orme,  Rich Grenyer and the members of our Global Assessment of reptile distributions working-group, we examine factors that affect the distribution and evolution of lizards.  We are trying mapping reptile distribution globally (With Anat in charge of snakes, Yuval of tortoises, crocs and the Tuatara, and Maria taking care of small-island reptiles, and Uri Roll making the calls that require a responsible-adult), to study richness patterns, as well as other macroecological phenomena (relationships of features such as body size, range size, range position, etc.). Within this project Amir is mapping the distribution of all of sub-Saharan Africa's lizards and amphisbaenians, to examine their congruence with other reptiles and other vertebrate classes. Enav is studying the distribution of Palearctic lizards as well as their functional diversity, comparing them to the nested subset of Israeli lizards to examine the effect of scale on these metrics, as part of her PhD project (co-supervised by Yoni Belmaker)

We also play a lot with global datasets of vertebrate body size, and ask questions that mainly relate to size evolution on islands. Whenever we can we do this with Ally Phillimore (don’t call him Bede!), Pasquale Raia (e.g., Amy's project on the relationship between island area and the body sizes of mammals and reptiles andMaria's work on the relationship between insularity and life history) and Daniel Pincheira-Donoso. Maria also studies the macroecology of population density, in collaboration with Gordon Rodda.

Finally, we examine signs for over fishing in Israeli waters using macroecological methods (Iris's project, in collaboration with Menachem Goren)

"No statistical procedure can substitute for serious thinking about alternative evolutionary scenarios and their credibility"   Westoby, M. Leishman, M. and Lord, J. 1995. On misinterpreting 'phylogenetic correction. Journal of Ecology 83: 531-534.


We examine and measure museum specimens of birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles in museums across the world in order to study both current patterns of diversity and body size evolution – and temporal changes in both these axes that may have important conservation implications as well as teach us important lessons regarding the tempo and mode of evolution. Thus, for example, we study,  body size changes in recent time in relation to cliamte change and other anthropogenic influences with Inon Scharf - this is part of the MSc project of Yuval(Baar).

We likewise acquired a large dataset of carnivore skull and teeth measurements (currently > 24600 measured specimens belonging to 248 – nearly all carnivore species) and a slightly smaller dataset (~1000 specimens) of treeshrew measurements. We use these data mainly to examine the forces that affect body size evolution (often in collaboration with Tamar Dayan  and Dan Simberloff), especially in relation to insularity, climate, resources, and community composition.

We further make use of the Faculty of Life Sciences own Natural History Museum where Shai is the curator of the tetrapod collections to study the abovementioned phenomena, but also to resolve the phylogeny, taxonomy and distribution of Israeli animals. Thus, for example, we try to establish the number, identity, phylogeography and distribution of Israeli "thin" racers of the Platyceps rhodorachis/saharicus/tesselata/ladacensis complex (Guy's MSc. project, in collaboration with Roi Dor), and Karin is working on the phylogeny and taxonomy ofAcanthodactylus, Pseudotrapelus, Rhynchocalamus and Phoenicolacerta (project in collaboration with Salvador Carranza) - with a focus on the Israeli species.

“...What is needed in a collection of natural history is, that it should be made as accessible and as useful as possible on the one hand to the general public, and on the other to scientific workers...  What the public want is easy and unhindered access to such a collection as they can understand and appreciate ; and what the men of science want is similar access to the materials of science. To this end the vast mass of objects of natural history should be divided into two parts, -one open to the public, the other to men of science, every day, and all day long." Tomas Henry Huxley 1877. On the study of biology. American Naturalist, 11: 210-221.

Field studies

We don’t participate in nearly as many field studies as we would like (but we’re working on remedying this). We are trying to survey the Israeli Herpetofauna and soricofauna (now here’s a term we assume no one has ever used before! shrew fauna) in the field. We also have a fascinating collaborative study (with Panayiotis Pafilis  in the University of Athens) where we study the life history of the lizards Podarcis erhardii and Podarcis gaigeae, endemic to the Skyros archipelago (Aegean Sea, Greece). and the geckos Mediodactylus kotschyi and Hemidactylus turcicus. These small lizards (the lacertids similar to Israeli Phoenicolacerta laevis) often become larger on small islets, but sometimes grow smaller. Podarcis gaigeae get especially large on a speck of rock that different cartographers argue should be called either Mesa Diavates or Exo Diavates – a giant Diavates male can attain a mass of 20 grams, 3 times heavier than a mainland male. We do field work on Skyros and its adjacent islands, and especially in the Cyclades, and sometimes on other Greek islands trying to quantify morphological, life history, physiological endocrinological and behavioural differences between population inhabiting different islands (genetic differences were found to be minimal, but we are looking further into that as well, with Nikos Poulakakis). We also look hard for possible drivers for the observed differences, especially those related to arthropod abundance, vegetation structure, goat and sheep grazing, sea bird nesting and the usual suspects of island biogeography theory (area and isolation). We compare various traits and their variances between islands and to mainland populations. Yuval (Itescu) and Rachel  are studying these lizards in Greece - and the tree gecko (M. kotschyi, interestingly it is not a tree gecko in Greece, but is mostly saxicolous there) in Israel as well. Both are co-supervised by Panayiotis.

 Last (for the time being) is Ohad's project (with Eran Levin from the University of Arizona, and Amit Dolevfrom the Israeli Nature and Parks authority) looking at various aspects of mammal diversity across the Mediterranean biome in Israel.

We (or at least Oliver and Alex) join Allen Allison to study how trait means and variances evolve along elevation gradients in mountains in Papua New Guinea where we will also study the implication of climate change to the reptiles of this biodiversity hotspot.

"It (ecological equilibrium) has the disadvantage of being untrue. The 'balance of nature' does not exist" C.S. Elton 1930 Animal ecology and evolution" P. 17


Meiri, S. and Chapple, D. G. 2016. Biases in the current knowledge of threat status in lizards, and bridging the ‘assessment gap’. Biological Conservation doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2016.03.009.

Roll, U., Mittermeier, J. C., Diaz, G. I., Novosolov, M., Feldman, F., Itescu, Y., Meiri, S. and Grenyer, R. Using Wikipedia page views to explore the cultural importance of global reptiles. Biological Conservation Accepted.

Tamar, K., Scholz, S., Crochet. P-A., Geniez, P., Meiri, S., Schmitz, A., Wilms, T. and Carranza, S. 2016. Evolution around the Red Sea: Systematics and biogeography of the agamid genus Pseudotrapelus (Squamata: Agamidae) from North Africa and Arabia. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 97: 55-68.

Jamison, S., Tamar, K., Slavenko, A. and Meiri, S. Tarentola annularis: a new invasive species in Israel. Salamandra in Press

Pafilis, P., Meiri, S., Sagonas, K., Karakasi, D., Kourelou, E. and Valakos, E. D. 2016. Body size affects digestive performance in a Mediterranean lizard. Herpetological Journal In Press.

Feldman, A., Sabath, N., Pyron, R. A., Mayrose, I. and Meiri, S. 2016. Body-sizes and diversification rates of lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians and the tuatara. Global Ecology and Biogeography 25 doi: 10.1111/geb.12398.

Shenbrot, G., Feldstein, T. and Meiri, S. 2016. Are cryptic species of the Lesser Egyptian Jerboa, Jaculus jaculus (Rodentia, Dipodidae), really cryptic? Re-evaluation of their taxonomic status with new data from Israel and Sinai. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research doi: 10.1111/jzs.12121.

Karagkouni, M., Sfenthourakis, S., Feldman, F. and Meiri, S. 2016. Biogeography of body size in terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Oniscidea). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research doi: 10.1111/jzs.12125.

Novosolov, M., Rodda, G. H., Feldman, A., Kadison, A. E., Dor, R. and Meiri, S. 2016. Power in numbers. The evolutionary drivers of high population density in insular lizards. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25: 87-95. doi: 10.1111/geb.12390.

Slavenko, A., Itescu, Y., Ihlow, F. and Meiri, S. 2016. Home is where the shell is: predicting turtle home range sizes. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85: 106-114, doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12446

Feldman, A., Bauer, A. M., Castro-Herrera, F., Chirio, L., Das, I., Doan, T. M., Maza, E., Meirte, D., Nogueira, C. C., Nagy, Z. T., Torres-Carvajal, O., Uetz, P. and Meiri, S. 2015. The geography of snake reproductive mode: A global analysis of the evolution of snake viviparity. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 24: 1433-1442. doi: 10.1111/geb.12374.

Tamar, K., Carranza, S., in den Bosch, H., Sindaco, R., Moravec, J. and Meiri, S. 2015. Hidden relationships and genetic diversity: Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of the Levantine lizards of the genus Phoenicolacerta (Squamata: Lacertidae). Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 91: 86-97.  DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2015.05.002.

Barun, A., Simberloff, D., Meiri, S., Tvrtkovic, N. and Tadic, Z. 2015. Possible character displacement of an introduced mongoose and native marten on Adriatic Islands, Croatia. Journal of Biogeography 42: 2257-2269, doi:10.1111/jbi.12587.

Berkowic, D., Stokke, B. G., Meiri, S. and Markman, S. 2015. Climate change and coevolution in the cuckoo–reed warbler system. Evolutionary Ecology 29: 581-597. Doi: 10.1007/s10682-015-9763-x.

Newbold, T., Hudson, L. N., Hill, S. L. L., Contu, S., Lysenko, I., Senior, R. A., Borger, L., Bennett, D. J., Choimes, A., Collen, B., Day, J., De Palma, A., Diaz, S., Echeverria-Londono, S., Edgar, M. J., Feldman, A., Garon, M., Harrison. M. L. K., Alhusseini, T., Ingram, D. J., Itescu, Y., Kattge, J., Kemp, V., Kirkpatrick, L., Kleyer, M., Correia, D. L. P., Martin, C. D., Meiri, S., Novosolov, M., Pan, Y., Phillips, H. R. P., Purves, D. W., Robinson, A., Simpson, J., Tuck, S. L., Weiher, E., White, H. J., Ewers, R. M., Mace, G. M., Scharlemann, J. P. W. and Purvis, A. 2015. Global effects of land use on local terrestrial biodiversity. Nature 520: 45-50. doi:10.1038/nature14324. published online

Slavenko, A. and Meiri, S. 2015. Mean body sizes of amphibian species are poorly predicted by climate. Journal of Biogeography 42: 1246-1254. DOI: 10.1111/jbi.12516.

Meiri, S., Feldman, A. and Kratochvil, L. 2015. Squamate hatchling size and the evolutionary causes of negative offspring size allometry. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 28: 438-446. DOI: 10.1111/jeb.12580.

Raia, P., Passaro, F., Carotenuto, F., Maiorino, L., Piras, P., Teresi, L., Meiri, S., Itescu, Y., Novosolov, M., Baiano, M., Martinez, R. and Fortelius, M. 2015. Cope’s rule and the universal scaling law of ornament complexity. The American Naturalist, 186: 165-175. DOI: 10.1086/682011

Itescu, Y., Slavenko, A., Schwarz, R., Meiri, S. and Pafilis, P. 2016. The ocellated skink (Chalcides ocellatus) from the Greek islands – a new finding enhances biogeographical scenarios. Herpetozoa in Press.

Slavenko, A., Itescu, Y., Foufopoulos, J., Pafilis, P. and Meiri, S. 2015. Clutch size variability in an ostensibly fix-clutched lizard: effects of insularity on a Mediterranean gecko. Evolutionary Biology 42: 129-136. DOI: 10.1007/s11692-015-9304-0

Scharf, I., Feldman, A., Novosolov, M., Pincheira-Donoso, D., Das, I., Bohm, M., Uetz, P., Torres-Carvajal, O., Bauer, A. M., Roll, U. and Meiri, S. 2015. Late bloomers and baby boomers: ecological drivers of longevity in squamates and the tuatara. Global Ecology and Biogeography 24: 396-405. DOI: 10.1111/geb.12244

Maza, E., Feldman, A., Fishelson, L. and Meiri, S. 2015. Platyceps largeni (Schatti, 2001) – sixth specimen and distribution extension. Check List 11: 1517-1518.

Tamar, K., Carranza, S., Sindaco, R., Moravec, J. and Meiri, S. 2014. Systematics and phylogeography of Acanthodactylus schreiberi and its relationships with Acanthodactylus boskianus (Reptilia: Squamata: Lacertidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 172: 720-739., doi: 10.1111/zoj.12170.

Meiri, S., Kadison, A. E., Novosolov, M., Pafilis, P., Foufopoulos, J., Itescu, Y., Raia, P. and Pincheira-Donoso, D. 2014. The number of competitor species is unlinked to sexual dimorphism. Journal of Animal Ecology 83: 1302-1312.

Feldman, A. and Meiri, S. 2014. Australian snakes do not follow Bergmann's Rule. Evolutionary Biology, 41: 327-335. DOI 10.1007/s11692-014-9271-x.

Itescu, Y., Karraker, N. E., Pritchard, P., Raia, P. and Meiri, S. 2014. Is the island rule general? Turtles disagree. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23: 689-700.

Novosolov, M. and Meiri, S. 2013. The effect of island type on lizard reproductive traits. Journal of Biogeography, 40: 2385-2395. DOI: 10.1111/jbi.12179.

Scharf, I. and Meiri, S. 2013. Sexual dimorphism of heads and abdomens: different approaches to “being large” in female and male lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 110: 665-673. DOI: 10.1111/bij.12147.

Pincheira-Donoso, D. and Meiri, S. 2013. An intercontinental analysis of climate-driven body size clines in reptiles: no support for patterns, no signals of processes. Evolutionary Biology, 40: 562-578. DOI 10.1007/s11692-013-9232-9.

Meiri, S., Bauer, A. M., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Das, I., Doan, T. M., Feldman, A., Herrera, F-C., Novosolov, M., Pafilis, P., Pincheira-Donoso, D., Powney, G., Torres-Carvajal, O., Uetz, P. and Van Damme, R. 2013. Are lizards feeling the heat? A tale of ecology and evolution under two temperatures. Global Ecology and Biogeography 22: 834–845.

Pomerantz, O., Meiri, S. and Terkel, J. 2013. Socio-ecological factors and cognitive skills predict levels of stereotypic behaviour in zoo-housed primates. Behavioural Processes 98: 85-91.

Pincheira-Donoso, D., Bauer, A., Meiri, S. and Uetz, P. 2013. Global taxonomic diversity in living reptiles. PLoS ONE 8(3): e59741. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059741.

Hortal, J., Carrascal, L. M., Triantis, K. A., Thebault, E., Meiri, S. and Sfenthourakis, S. 2013. Species richness can decrease with altitude, but not with habitat diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 110: E2149-E2150.

Roll, U., Tallowin, O., Berkowic, D., Maza, E., Ostrometzky, Y., Slavenko, A., Shacham, B., Tamar, K. and Meiri, S. 2013. Rueppel’s Snake-eyed skink, Ablepharus rueppellii (Gray, 1839) (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae): distribution extension and geographic range in Israel. Check List 9: 458-464.

Sagonas, K., Meiri, S., Valakos, E. D. and Pafilis, P. 2013. The effect of body size on the thermoregulation of lizards on hot, dry Mediterranean islands. Journal of Thermal Biology 38: 92-97.

Feldman, A. and Meiri, S. 2013. Length-mass allometry in snakes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 108: 161-182.

McFadden, K. W. and Meiri, S. 2013. Dwarfism in insular carnivores: a case study of the pygmy raccoon. Journal of Zoology, 289: 213-221.

Novosolov, M., Raia, P. and Meiri, S. 2013. The island syndrome in lizards. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 22: 184-191.

Davies, J., Cooper, N., Diniz-Filho, J. A. F., Thomas, G. H. and Meiri, S. 2012. Using phylogenetic trees to test for character displacement: a model and an example from a desert mammal community. Ecology, 93 (Supplement 6): S44-S51.

Meiri, S., Brown, J. H. and Sibly, R. M. 2012. The ecology of lizard reproductive output. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 21: 592-602.

Roll, U., Stone, L., Grenyer, R. and Meiri, S. 2011. Not so holy after all. Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution 57: 193-204.

Raia, P. and Meiri, S. 2011. The tempo and mode of evolution: body sizes of island mammals. Evolution, 65: 1927-1934.

Meiri, S., Simberloff, D, and Dayan, T. 2011. Community-wide character displacement in the presence of clines: A test of Holarctic weasel guilds. Journal of Animal Ecology, 80: 824-834.

Meiri, S. 2011. Bergmann's Rule - What's in a name? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 19: 20: 203-207.

Meiri, S., Raia, P. and Phillimore, A. B. 2011. Slaying dragons: limited evidence for unusual body size evolution on islands. Journal of Biogeography 38: 89-100.

Meiri, S. and Raia, P. 2010. Reptilian all the way? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 107: E27.

Meiri, S. 2010. Length-weight allometries in lizards. Journal of Zoology, 281: 218-226.

Raia, P., Carotenuto, F. and Meiri, S. 2010. One size does not fit all: No evidence for an optimal body size on islands. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 19: 475-484.

Powney, G. D., Grenyer, R., Orme, C. D. L., Owens, I. P. F. and Meiri, S. 2010. Hot, dry and different: Australian lizard richness is unlike that of mammals, amphibians, and birds. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 19: 386-396.

Roll, U., Stone, L. and Meiri, S. 2009. Hot-spot facts and artifacts – questioning Israel's great biodiversity. Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution, 55: 263-279.

Hortal, J., Triantis, K. A., Meiri, S., Thebault, E. and Sfenthourakis, S. 2009. Island species richness increases with habitat diversity. American Naturalist, 174: e205-e217.

Thomas, G. H., Meiri, S. and Phillimore, A. B. 2009. Body size diversification in Anolis: novel environment and island effects. Evolution, 63: 2017-2030.

Pafilis, P., Meiri, S., Foufopoulos, J. and Valakos, E. 2009. Intraspecific competition and high food availability drive insular gigantism in a lizard. Naturwissenschaften, 96: 1107-1113.

Meiri, S., Dayan, T., Simberloff, D. and Grenyer, R. 2009. Life on the edge: Carnivore body size variation is all over the place. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B., 276: 1469-1476.

Meiri, S., Guy, D., Dayan, T. and Simberloff, D. 2009. Global change and carnivore body size – data are stasis. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 18: 240-247.

Olson , V. A., Davies, R. G., Orme, C. D. L., Thomas, G. H., Meiri, S., Blackburn, T. M., Gaston, K. J., Owens, I. P. F. and Bennett, P. M. 2009. Global biogeography and ecology of body size in birds. Ecology Letters, 12: 249-259.

Meiri, S. 2008. Evolution and ecology of lizard body sizes. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17: 724-734.

Meiri, S., Meijaard, E., Wich, S. Groves, C. and Helgen, K. 2008. Mammals of Borneo - small size on a large island. Journal of Biogeography, 35: 1087-1094.

Meiri, S., Cooper, N. and Purvis, A. 2008. The island rule: made to be broken? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 275: 141-148.

Meiri, S. and Mace, G. M. 2007. New taxonomy and the origin of species. PLoS Biology, 5: 1385-1386.

Meiri, S., Dayan, T., and Simberloff, D. 2007. Guild composition and mustelid morphology – Character displacement but no character release. Journal of Biogeography, 34: 2148-2158.

Meiri, S. and Thomas, G. H. 2007. The geography of body size – challenges of the interspecific approach. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16: 689-693.

Meiri, S. 2007. Size evolution in island lizards. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16: 702-708.

Meiri, S., Duckworth, W. J. and Meijaard, E. 2007. Biogeography of Mustela lutreolina (Robinson and Thomas, 1917) and a newly discovered specimen of from Java. Small Carnivore Conservation, 37: 1-5.

Davies, J. T., Meiri, S., Barraclough, T. G. and Gittleman, J. L. 2007. Species coexistence and character divergence across carnivores. Ecology Letters, 10: 146-152.

Meiri, S., Yom-Tov, Y. and Geffen, E. 2007. What determines conformity to Bergmann’s rule? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16: 788-794.

Raia, P. and Meiri, S. 2006. The island rule in large mammals: Paleontology meets ecology. Evolution, 60: 1731-1742.

Duckworth, W. J., Lee, B., Meijaard, E. and Meiri, S. 2006. The Malay Weasel Mustela nudipes: distribution, natural history and a global conservation status review.  Small Carnivore Conservation, 34: 2-21.

Meiri, S., Dayan, T., and Simberloff, D. 2006. The generality of the island rule re-examined. Journal of Biogeography, 33: 1571-1577.

Meiri, S., Dayan, T., and Simberloff, D. 2005. Area, isolation, and size evolution in insular carnivores. Ecology Letters 8: 1211-1217.

Meiri, S., Simberloff, D. and Dayan, T. 2005. Insular carnivore biogeography: Island area and mammalian optimal body size. American Naturalist, 165: 505-514.

Meiri, S., Dayan, T. and Simberloff, D. 2005. Variability and sexual size dimorphism in carnivores: Testing the niche variation hypothesis. Ecology, 86: 1432-1440.

Meiri, S., Dayan, T. and Simberloff, D. 2005. Biogeographic patterns in the Western Palearctic: the fasting-endurance hypothesis and the status of Murphy's rule. Journal of Biogeography, 32: 369-375.

Meiri, S., Dayan, T., and Simberloff, D. 2005. Variability and correlations in carnivore crania and dentition. Functional Ecology, 19: 337-343.

Meiri, S., Dayan, T., and Simberloff, D. 2004. Body size of insular carnivores: Little support for the island rule. American Naturalist, 163: 469-479.

Meiri, S., Dayan, T., and Simberloff, D. 2004. Carnivores, biases and Bergmann's rule. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 81: 579-588.

Meiri, S. and Yom-Tov, Y. 2004. Ontogeny of large birds: Migrants do it faster. Condor, 106: 540-548.

Meiri, S. and Dayan, T. 2003. On the validity of Bergmann’s rule. Journal of Biogeography, 30: 331-351.

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